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National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens

What is under consideration for the 11th RoC?

The following tables contain listings of agents, substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances proposed for listing in or delisting from the Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, to be reviewed by the NTP Board Subcommittees.

Summary for
Agents, Substances, Mixtures or Exposure Circumstances
to be Reviewed in 2001-2002 for Possible Listing in
the Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition

NOMINATION TO BE REVIEWED/
CAS NUMBER

PRIMARY USES OR EXPOSURES

NOMINATED BY BASIS FOR NOMINATION

1-Amino-2,4-dibromo- anthraquinone
(81-49-2)

1-Amino-2,4- dibromoanthraquinone is an anthraquinone-derived vat dye that is used in the textile industry

NIEHS1

Results of NTP Bioassay (TR 383, 1996) that reported clear evidence of carcinogenicity at multiple tumor sites in multiple species of experimental animals.

2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ)
(77094-11-2)

MeIQ is a heterocyclic amine that is formed during heating or cooking and is found in cooked meat and fish.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (Vol. 56; 1993)

Cobalt Sulfate Heptahydrate
(10124-43-3)

Cobalt sulfate is used in electroplating and electrochemical industries. It is also used as a coloring agent for ceramics, a drying agent in inks, paints, varnishes and linoleum, and has been added to animal feed as a mineral supplement.

NIEHS1

Results of NTP Bioassay (TR 471, 1998) which reported clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in female F344/N rats and male and female B63F1 mice and some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male F344/N rats.

Diazoaminobenzene (DAAB)
(136-35-6)

DAAB is used as an intermediate, complexing agent, polymer additive and also to promote adhesion of natural rubber to steel.

NIEHS1

Results of research supported the by the NTP that demonstrated this chemical is quantitatively metabolized to benzene (a known human carcinogen)

Diethanolamine (DEA)
(111-42-2)

DEA is used in the preparation of surfactants used in liquid laundry, dishwashing detergents, cosmetics, shampoos, and hair conditioners and in textile processing, industrial gas purification and as an anticorrosion agent.

Dr. Franklin Mirer of the United Auto Workers

Results of NTP Bioassay (TR 478, 1999) which reported clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female B6C3F1 mice.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

HBV is a small DNA-enveloped virus that is transmitted by percutaneous or permuscosal exposure to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (Vol. 59, 1994)

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

HCV is an RNA-enveloped virus that is transmitted mainly by percutaneous exposure to infectious blood and less efficiently by permuscosal exposure to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (Vol. 59, 1994)

High Risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs)

HPVs are small, non-enveloped viruses that infect the skin and oral and genital mucosa. HPV infections are common throughout the world.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (Vol. 70, 1997)

X-Radiation and GAMMA (g)-Radiation

The major exposures of concern for cancer from X- and g-radiation are from the past use of atomic weapons and from medical uses of radiation.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (Vol. 75, 2000)

Neutrons

Exposure to neutrons normally occurs from a mixed irradiation field in which neutrons are a minor component. The exceptions are exposure of patients to neutron radiotherapy beams and exposures of aircraft passengers and crew.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (Vol. 75, 2000)

Occupational Exposure to Lead or Lead Compounds

Major occupational exposures are in the lead smelting and refining industries, battery-manufacturing plants, steel welding or cutting operations, construction, and firing ranges.

NIEHS1

Recent published data that indicate an excess of cancers in workers exposed to lead and lead compounds.

Naphthalene
(91-20-3)

Naphthalene is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of many industrial chemicals, an ingredient in some moth repellants and toilet bowl deodorants, as an antiseptics for irrigating animal wounds and to control lice on livestock and poultry.

NIEHS1

Results of NTP Bioassay (TR 500, 2000) that reported clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male & female rats and some evidence in female mice

Nitrobenzene
(98-95-3)

Nitrobenzene is used mainly in the production of aniline, itself a major chemical intermediate in the production of dyes.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (Vol. 65, 1996)

Nitromethane
(75-52-5)

Nitromethane is used as an additive to many halogenated solvents and aerosol propellants as a stabilizer. It can also be used in specialized fuels and in explosives.

NIEHS1

Results of NTP Bioassay (TR 461, 1997) that reported clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male & female mice and clear evidence in female rats

Phenylimidazopyridine
[PhIP, (105650-23-5)]

PhIP is a heterocyclic amine that is formed during heating or cooking and is found in cooked meat and fish.

Dr. Takashi Sugimura, President Emeritus, National Cancer Center of Japan,

Nomination based on Dr. Sugimura's recent reviews of the carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines

4,4'-Thiodianiline
(139-65-1)

4,4'-Thiodianiline has been produced commercially since the early 1940's as an intermediate of several diazo dyes.

NIEHS1

IARC2 finding of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (Suppl 7, 1987) and result of NTP Bioassay studies that demonstrated clear evidence of carcinogenicity in mice and rats (TR-047, 1978)

1 - The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
2 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

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