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Do your Products Contain any of these Carcinogens, cancer Causing Agents?


 

The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) classifies cosmetics and personal care products, but does not regulate them.  In 1938, the FDA granted self-regulation to the Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association (CTFA), the self-appointed industry organization.

With The exception of color additives and a few prohibited ingredients, a cosmetic manufacturer may use almost any raw material as a cosmetic ingredient and market the product without an approval from FDA" ("Prohibited Ingredients", FDA Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet, Dec. 19, 1994)

What this means is that the industry does not have to account to anyone, not even the FDA.  The direct result of industry self-regulation is that many products on the market today that we use constantly--and worse, products that we UNKNOWINGLY use on our children and even babies in the womb-- are Toxic!

Wayne Stevenson of the FDA Cosmetics Registration Section says that "The cosmetic manufacturers aren't required to submit safety data to the FDA, so we don't really know what sorts of tests they run.  When they run tests, they keep the results in their own files." ("Smelling Good But Feeling Bad", Franz et al, E Magazine Vol. 11, no 1, Jan-Feb 2000)

The FDA must prove in a court of law that a product may be injurious... before the product can be recalled.  The FDA admits they don't have the budget to win in court against the giant cosmetic companies.

The "FDA Consumer Complaints About Cosmetic Products 1999 Annual Report" lists complaints of adverse reactions to brand-name cosmetics and personal care products.  The FDA admits they probably receive only a very small percentage of actual complaints.  58% of these adverse reactions were in the dermatitis/pain/tissue damage categories, and 17% in the nervous system reactions category.  All of the named products were topical (lotions, shaving creams, toothpastes, etc (FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Cosmetics and Colors; "Consumer Complaints for Cosmetics Products 1999 Annual Report"  (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/costop99.html )

NOTE:  All that's required for a chemical to be on the FDA GRAS List (Generally Recognized As Safe") is that no one has shown it to be UNSAFE.

A "U.S. News and World Report" article published in 1998 stated "We look good, we smell good, and we have just exposed ourselves to 200 different chemicals a day, through personal care products."  Now, four years later, that number is probably more like 300.... BE AWARE OF ... We have chosen to describe a few of the worst offenders of the thousands of toxic chemicals used in personal and skin care products.  Many of these chemicals have more than one effect; some are suspected carcinogens, as well as being toxins, contaminates, skin irritants, hormone disruptors, poisons, etc.

 

Isopropyl Alcohol: - Implicated in mouth, tongue, and throat cancers. A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid produced by the fermentation of yeast and carbohydrates. Alcohol is used frequently as a solvent and is also found in cleaning agents, cosmetics and personal care products, perfumes and rubbing alcohol, beverages and medicine. As an ingredient in ingestible products, alcohol may cause body tissues to be more vulnerable to carcinogens. Mouthwashes with an alcohol content of 25% or more have been implicated in oral cancers. Poisoning symptoms include flushing, dizziness, depression, nausea, headaches, and coma.  Rubbing alcohol baths or sponges used to soothe a fever can lead to acute poisoning through skin absorption or inhalation.  Package warning suggest using protective gloves, and using a well-ventilated area.

Alpha Hydroxy Acid: - Skin irritant. An organic acid produced by anaerobic respiration. Skin care products containing AHA exfoliate not only dead skin cells, but the skinís protective barrier as well. Long-term skin damage may result from its use.

Aluminum: - Skin irritant. Has been linked to Alzheimer's Disease. Very commonly found in antiperspirants; it's used to clog your underarm pores, so you don't sweat... not a good thing to do! The leading cause of breast cancer is the use of antiperspirant. A Concentration of toxins that leads to cell mutations (a.k.a. CANCER.) Yes, ANTIPERSPIRANT. Most of the products out there are an antiperspirant/deodorant combination so go home and check your labels. Deodorant is fine, antiperspirant is not.

Animal Fat (Tallow): - A type of animal tissue made up of oily solids or semisolids that are water-insoluble esters of glycerol with fatty acids. Animal fats and lye are the chief ingredients in bar soap, a cleansing and emulsifying product that may act as a breeding ground for bacteria

Bentonite: - May suffocate the skin. A porous clay that expands many times its dry volume as it absorbs water. Commonly found in many cosmetic foundations, may clog pores and suffocate the skin. *This is also used to put out forest fires because it has the ability to smother the flames.

Bronopol: - Acts by releasing nitrites, which combine with DEA to form nitrosamines. "One of the most expensive lines of cosmetics today, Chanel, often uses this chemical. So do many leading brands of baby products. And the Body Shop, whose product sales are built on a reputation of containing natural ingredients, also offers products containing this chemical. There are many safer yet equally effective products available," states Dr. Epstein.**

Butylated hydroxianisole (BHA)
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)

BHA and BHT are preservatives very commonly used not only in cosmetics and personal care products, but in food products.  BHA is absorbed through the skin, stored in body tissues, and is an animal carcinogen, suspected human carcinogen, and a xenoestrogen.

Coal Tar Dyes: - Carcinogens. Blue #1 and Green #3 to name only a few. According to Dr. Epstein, "These carcinogenic dyes are often contaminated with arsenic and lead." Check your toothpaste label on the box it came in! These artificial dyes are in many other products as well.

Collagen: - May suffocate the skin. An insoluble fibrous protein that is too large to penetrate the skin. The collagen found in most skin care products is derived from animal skins and ground up chicken feet. This ingredient forms a layer of film that may suffocate the skin. The molecular weight of any product must be 3000 to enter the skin, 800 to enter the cell, 75 to enter the blood stream. The molecular weight of most skin & hair products is over 10,000 therefore, is ineffective.

Crystalline Silica:  - Carcinogen. According to Dr. Epstein, "Crystalline Silica is present in some personal care products and toiletries. It's been incriminated as a cause of lung cancer in both animal studies and human."

DEA (Diethanolamine)
MEA (Monoethanolamine)
TEA (Triethanolamine)

Some alias names:  Cocamide DEA, DEA-Cetyl phosphate, DEA Oleth-3 phosphate, Myristamide DEA, Stearamide MEA, Cocamide MEA, Lauramide DEA, Linoleamide MEA, Oleamide DEA, TEA-Lauryl Sulfate ("Diethanolamine and Cosmetic Products", FDA Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet, Dec. 9, 1999) These chemicals and related ingredients are emulsifiers and foaming agents, widely used in a variety of cosmetic products, particularly bubble bath, bodywash, shampoo, soap and facial cleansers.

Ethanolamines are eye and skin irritants, causing contact dermatitis.  DEA is easily absorbed through the skin, and accumulates in body organs, even the brain. "Animal tests show it causes damage to the liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, bone marrow, and skin.  Contact with the eyes can cause impaired vision". ("Dangerous Beauty: Cosmetics and Personal Care:, P. Dingle and T. Brown, 1999 In 1998, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) did a research study showing an association between cancer in laboratory animals and diethanolamine (DEA) and certain DEA - related ingredients, when applied topically. ("Diethanolamine and Cosmetic Products", FDA Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet, Dec. 9, 1999) John Bailey, head of the Cosmetic Division for the FDA, says that the ....study is especially important since "the risk equation changes significantly for children" ... CBS THIS MORNING, Feb. 23, 1998.

According to Dr. Samuel S. Epstein, "After this clear-cut study which was released by the National Toxicology Program, you would expect that the mainstream industry to have acted on this and to replace DEA. Not on your life! There's been a denial and an attempt to trivialize the risk." NITROSAMINES ARE CARCINOGENS! ("Prohibited Ingredients", FDA Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet, February 1005)  You're not allowed to eat them, but you're permitted to put them on your skin!

DEA, when in the presence of nitrate preservatives and contaminants, can form the nitrosamine NDELA (nitrosodiethanolamine).  In 1991, two surveys were conducted which found that of 29 products tested, 27 were found to contain NDELA... in 1980, the FDA analyzed 335 cosmetic products and found that 42% were contaminated with NDELA..." ("Dangerous Beauty: Cosmetics and Personal Care:, P. Dingle and T. Brown, 1999 The concentration of nitrosamines in these products is as much as 50% to 100% higher than that in nitrate-processed bacon (no longer produced in this country because of the carcinogenic effects!) According to Dr. Epstein, "Your best self-protection is to boycott any products containing DEA or TEA. That will send a clear message to the cosmetic industry."


  Dioxins:  - A potentially carcinogenic by-product that results from the process used to bleach paper at paper mills. Dioxin-treated containers sometimes transfer dioxins to the product itself. (see Sodium Laureth Sulfate). According to Dr. Epstein, "The Health Protection Branch of Canada has reported dioxin levels in the parts per trillion range in several samples of milk and cream packaged in bleached milk cartons manufactured in the United States. Dioxin has migrated from the cartons to the milk. Very likely U.S. milk products are similarly contaminated with dioxin. Dioxin's carcinogenicity is up to 500,000 times more potent than that of DDT."  childrens health environmental coalition


Formaldehyde: carcinogen. Found in many cosmetic products and conventional nail care systems.  

Elastin of High-molecular Weight: - A protein similar to collagen that is the main component of elastic fibers. Elastin is also derived from animal sources. Its effect on the skin is similar to collagen.

Fluoride  - Possible carcinogen. Dr. Epstein states, "There have been several studies incriminating fluoride in bone cancer. The important point about this is that the public have been given no information on this and fluoride in toothpaste is particularly dangerous because kids swallow a significant amount of the fluoride, especially when toothpaste contains saccharin as many toothpastes do." http://www.nofluoride.com

Fluorocarbons: - Can produce mild upper respiratory tract irritation. A colorless, nonflammable gas or liquid commonly used as a propellant in hairspray.

Formaldehyde:  Is used as a disinfectant, germicide, fungicide, and preservative.  It is found in cosmetics and personal care products because numerous other ingredients release formaldehyde when they break down. Two of these formaldehyde donors used as preservatives are DMDM (Dimethylol Dimethol Hydantoin) and Imidazolidinyl Urea often sited as the second most common cause orf contact dermatitis from preservatives. (A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, Ruth Winters, Three Rivers Press, 1999)  

Glycerin: -  A syrupy liquid that is chemically produced by combining water and fat. Unless the humidity of air is over 65 percent, glycerin draws moisture from the lower layers of the skin and holds it on the surface, which dries the skin from the inside out.   Although potentially harmful in skin care products, when applied inside the moist cavity of the mouth, its properties as a humectant are potentially beneficial. Glycerin helps dental products retain moisture, as well as improve product consistency and spreadability--without negative effects.

Kaolin: - May suffocate the skin. A fine white clay used in making porcelain. Like Bentonite, kaolin smothers and weakens the skin. Used in cosmetic foundations, as well as absorbing powder, face masks, liquid and cake powder and dry blusher.

Lanolin: - Highly contaminated with pesticides. According to Dr. Epstein, "Most lanolin samples, at least 50 to 60%, are contaminated." A highly concentrated watery solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Lye is combined with animal fats to make bar soaps, which may corrode and dry out the skin.  It is found in toothpaste, eye drops, and other personal care products.  The MSDS for it says "POISON!  DANGER!  CORROSIVE.  May be fatal if swallowed, harmful if inhaled.  Causes burns to any area of contact, reacts with water, acids, and other materials." (MSDS Sodium Hydroxide #S4034) Why is it included in toothpastes?  The action of the lye helps remove stains and discolorations on teeth.  This seems to be an extreme way to get whiter teeth!  Sodium hydroxide is in drain cleaners and oven cleaners.  You can buy lye - sodium hydroxide- in the plumbing department of your hardware store.  All these products have the same warnings as that noted above, but there are no warnings about Sodium Hydroxide on toothpaste tubes. Consumers should be very careful to check ingredients on toothpaste tubes, especially those that promise "brighter, whiter teeth".. It may be the sodium hydroxide that is doing the "whitening".

Mineral Oil (heavy) - Mineral Oil (light) - Smothers the skin. A derivative of crude oil (petrolatum) that is used industrially as a cutting fluid and lubricating oil. Mineral oil forms an oily film over skin to lock in moisture, but traps in toxins and wastes, and clogs your pores. It hinders normal skin respiration by keeping oxygen out.  It can promote acne and other disorders, and slows down normal cell development, resulting in premature aging of the skin.

Nitrosamine: - According to Dr. Epstein, "We've known since 1976 that DEA will react with nitrites which are present, as preservatives or contaminants, in personal care products, to produce a carcinogen known as nitrosodiethanolamine. This is found in virtually any cosmetic that contains DEA. Consumers have been exposed without any information and without any guidance whatsoever! In 1979 the FDA warned the cosmetic industry that DEA was dangerous because of this. The cosmetic industry ignored the warning! While over in Europe, strong action was taken to phase out the use of DEA." Padimate-O (also known as octyl dimethyl PABA): Act by releasing nitrites which combine with DEA to form *nitrosamines. Found in cosmetics, especially sunscreens. "The most prudent consumers will prefer sunscreens without padimate-O," states Dr. Epstein.

Para-phenylenediamine Dyes: - Carcinogenic when oxidized. According to Dr. Epstein, "These are dyes which are extensively used in permanent black and dark brown hair dyes which have been incriminated in a variety of cancers including non-Hodgkinís lymphoma and multiple myeloma." Something to think about: Jackie Kennedy used to dye her hair black every two weeks or so and she died of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Petrolatum: - Smothers the skin. A petroleum-based grease that is used industrially as a grease component. Petrolatum exhibits many of the same potentially harmful properties as mineral oil.  

Phthalates:  - Phthalates are commonly found in cosmetic and personal care products, especially nail polish, perfumes, hair sprays, and skin lotions, as well as clothes, household cleaners and deodorizers, baby toys, garden hoses, shower curtains, insect repellants, toothbrushes, food packaging, aspirin, medical tubing and fluid bags, gum, candy, biodegradable tampon injectors, and prescription medications. In the recent CDC study, ("National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals"; Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.

The CDC's John Brock, the head researcher on the phthalate study, said that his "biggest concern was that the highest levels of exposure were in women of child-bearing age." ("Concerns over chemicals in cosmetics", Francesca Lyman, October 4, 2000) Phthalates are regulated as toxic substances under environmental laws that limit their discharge into air, land, and water, but there are NO limitations on the amount of phthalates used in consumer products, including cosmetics. Health effects of phthalates include damage to the liver and kidneys, birth defects, decreased sperm counts, testicular cancer, early puberty onset in girls, early breast development in girls and boys, and other reproductive disorders. 

Phthalates are suspected in being at fault in reduced fertility in males. ("Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican Girls with premature breast development", Colon et al, Environmental Health Perspectives  Vol. 108, No. 9, Sept, 2000) "Metabolites of diethyl phthalate, used in volatile components of cosmetics like perfumes, nail polishes and hairsprays were found at levels about 70 times higher than metabolites of (one of) the chemicals banned in soft plastic toys...."

Propylene Glycol (PG)
Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)
Thylene Glycol (EG)

PG, PEG,  and EG are all petroleum derivatives that act as solvents, surfactants, and wetting agents.  They can easily penetrate the skin, and can weaken protein and cellular structure.  In fact, PG penetrates the skin so quickly that the EPA warns factory workers to avoid skin contact, to prevent brain, liver, and kidney abnormalities.  PG is present in many stick deodorants, often in heavier concentrations than in most industrial applications (Dr. Vin Nyack, Ph.D., Biochemist; personal communication) and Propylene Glycol is what is used to carry the "active" ingredients in those transdermal patches INTO YOUR BODY.

PG is a strong skin irritant. A cosmetic form of mineral oil found in automatic brake and hydraulic fluid, and industrial antifreeze. In skin and hair care products, propylene glycol works as a humectant, which is a substance that retains the moisture content of skin or cosmetic products by preventing the escape of moisture or water. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) warn users to avoid skin contact with propylene glycol as this strong skin irritant can cause liver abnormalities and kidney damage. May be harmful by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. May cause eye irritation, skin irritation. Exposure can cause gastro-intestinal disturbances, nausea, headache and vomiting, central nervous system depression. 

Check out your body lotions, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair gel, creams, and many more products! Molecular weight of PG is 60. (Ingredients with molecular weight of 75 or lower enters our blood stream) Propylene glycol is also used as a solvent in acrylics, stains, inks and dyes, and in cellophane and brake fluid.  It is used as a preservative in flavored coffee.  PG can have an anesthetic effect.  Other side effects on animals exposed to PG include heart arrhythmia, stunted growth, decreased blood pressure, and even death.  BG - Butylene Glycol - is now being used to replace PG in some personal care products.

Quanternium-15: - A formaldehyde donor Quanternium-15 is a preservative and anti-microbial and a severe cause of dermatitis.  It is also a teratrogen (causes birth defects in animals) ("A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients", Ruth Winters, Three Rivers Press, 1999) According to Dr. Epstein, "This ingredient is generally safe, BUT will break down in the bottle, or tube, or on the skin to release formaldehyde for which the evidence of its carcinogenicity is literally overwhelming."

Saccharin: - Carcinogen. According to Dr. Epstein, "The evidence on the carcinogenicity of saccharin is literally overwhelming. Sacchari is the only carcinogen identified in diet foods which is listed as a carcinogen on the label."

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS):
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES):
Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS)

SLS, SLES, and ALS are  used as detergents, surfactants and foaming agents.  These compounds can be found in almost any kind of industrial cleaning agent.  They are even more widely used as major ingredients in cosmetics, hair conditioners, toothpaste, about 90% of all shampoos, other products that foam (including those made especially for babies), and in products designed to be left on the skin for an extended period of time, for instance, bubble bath.

SLS is rapidly absorbed and retained in the eyes, brain, heart, and liver, which may result in harmful long-term effects. SLS could retard healing, cause cataracts in adults, and keep children's eyes from developing properly. In fact, studies have shown that washing your hair one time with a shampoo containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate could put as many nitrates into your bloodstream as eating a whole pound of bacon. And that is just ONE application.

Molecular weight of SLS is 40 (Ingredients with a molecular weight of 75 or lower enters our blood stream) SLES is "Contaminated with a very potent carcinogen; dioxane and very easily absorbed through the skin," states Dr. Epstein.

SLES is the alcohol form (ethoxylated) of SLS. It is slightly less irritating than SLS, but may cause more drying. Both SLS and SLES may cause potentially carcinogenic formations of nitrates and dioxins to form in shampoos and cleansers by reacting with other product ingredients. Large amounts of nitrates may enter the blood system from just one shampooing! There has been a lot of industry publicity about the safety of SLS, SLES, and ALS. 

Here are the facts, from several sources including the "Alert Bulletin: by the CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review), the expert panel used by the CTFA (Cosmetics, Toiletries, & Fragrance Association)

Skin & Eye Irritant -  "The Panel wishes to point out that these two ingredients (SLS & ALS) produce eye and/or skin irritation in experimental animals and in some human test subjects ...." The panel then quotes from the 1983 JACT report ("Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate", Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Vol. 2 #7, 1983) ..."the longer the ingredients stay in contact with the skin, the greater the likelihood of irritation, which may or may not be evident to the user ... (SLS)....causes severe epidermal changes to the area of the skin of mice to which it was applied.  This study indicates a need for tumor-enhancing activity assays...studies of rate skin treated with (SLS) found heavy deposition of the detergent on the skin surface and in the hair follicles...

Further, it has been reported that 1 percent and 5 percent SLS produced a significant number of conedones (pimples and blackheads) .... These two problems - possible hair loss and conedone formation -- along with proven irritancy, should be considered in the formulation of cosmetic products." Ulcers and More - Another research paper shows that SLS has protein-denaturing properties, causing skin to separate and become inflamed. ("Denaturation of Epidermal Keratin by Surface Active Agents", Journal Invest Dermatology, 32-81; 1959. It is this property that may leave mucous membranes in the mouth open to microscopic damage. 

SLS has been shown to contribute to mouth and gastrointestinal ulcers ("Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and recurrent aphthous ulcers- a Preliminary Study" - ACTA Odontol Scan, 52, 1994: pp 257-259 and "The Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers: A Clinical Study, Compendium 1997; 18(12), pp 1238-1240.) and yet SLS is an ingredient in most national brands of toothpaste.

An American Cancer Society news report quotes Keith Green, PhD., D.Sc. in refuting the internet rumor that SLS causes cancer: "Like many other chemicals, it is the manner of usage that is important. As long as you don't rub it all over your body and reapply it every hour for 24 hours, it's perfectly safe".."We did a study using diluted SLS as an eye drop.  We put the test amount on the eye of a rabbit and after a certain amount of time we found that SLS got inside the tissues, heart, brain, lungs, but in very minute amounts,."

People DO "rub it all over their bodies", many times a day while using many different personal care products, and don't rinse it off immediately when they sit in bubble bath.  It is at a concentration of MORE than "1 percent" in most shampoos and liquid hand soaps, and other personal care products.  SLS and / or SLES and/or ALS are usually the second ingredient listed, after water.  Check the shampoo shelves of your local store, and read the labels.

Talc: - Carcinogen. Used by some 20 million women in their reproductive years; not to mention, itís wide use on infants in the form of "baby powder". According to Dr. Epstein, M.D., "Talc should never be used on babies both because of its carcinogenicity and acute respiratory distress from inhalation that often results in death. There are at least 3 clear cut studies which have been published in the scientific literature that show routine application of talc in the genital area is associated with up to a 3 to 4 fold increase in the development of ovarian cancer."    Tallow - See Animal Fat- on prevent cancer.com

Triclosan:  The latest rage in the arsenal of antibacterial chemicals, Triclosan is included in detergents, dish soaps, laundry soaps, deodorants, cosmetics, lotions, creams, toothpastes and mouthwashes.  But, is Triclosan safe? 

The EPA registers it as a pesticide ("Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Agents of Subtle Change?", Daughton et al, Environmental Health perspectives Vol. 107, Supplement 6, December 1999.) giving it high scores as a risk to both human health and the environment.

Triclosan is a chlorophenol, a class of chemicals suspected of causing cancer in humans.  Externally, it can cause skin irritations, but since "phenols can temporarily deactivate the sensory nerve ending....contact with (Triclosan) often causes little or no pain...Internally, it can lead to cold sweats, circulatory collapse, convulsions, coma, and even death...stored in body fat, it can accumulate to toxic levels, damaging the liver, kidneys, and lungs, and can cause paralysis, sterility, suppression of immune function, brain hemorrhage, decreased fertility and sexual function, heart problems, and coma." (Dr. Angela McGehee, Bio-chemist; personal communication). From the January 21, 2002 issue of  "TIME MAGAZINE"

Unlike antibiotics, which are either found in nature or mimic the action of natural substances, antibacterial soaps contain triclosan and other synthetic chemicals that manufacturers once claimed could wipe out all bacteria.  But in the past two years, researchers have shown that some germs can, at least in the laboratory, mutate to counter Triclosan's effects.  That could be a problem because so many household products-from sponges to cutting boards to dishwashing liquids-now contain triclosan.  Once a few germs develop resistance, they will be much more likely to survive in a world full of triclosan.  Many researchers believe that prudent consumers, for their own good-not to mention the good of the planet--should keep triclosan products out of the house."(http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101020121-193560-2,00.html  )

*Dr. Samuel Epstein, co-author of "The Safe Shoppers Bible" is the Professor of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the School of Public Health, University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, and the chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition. As the author of the "Politics of Cancer", "Politics of Cancer Revisited" and "The Breast Cancer Prevention Program", he strongly advocates the use of consumer products that are free from known or suspected carcinogens.

"Neways has pioneered and succeeded in providing consumers with cosmetics and toiletries free of cancer causing and controversial ingredients and contaminates, I warmly congratulate them on their accomplishments."

Visit Dr. Epstein's website: Prevent cancer.com    

 

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